A term derived from the Singhalese for ‘Lotus flower’ and refers to a sapphire that has a distinct mix of pink/orange – a kind of sunset orange/pink or salmony colour.


A chemical element and metal with the symbol Pd. First discovered in 1803, palladium is a rare silvery white metal.



A term for glass when it has been moulded to resemble a gemstone, normally diamond.


When the surface of piece is covered with stones held in their pattern position by small claws.


The lower part of a faceted gem below the girdle. Located between the girdle and the culet (point), the pavilion is integral to the stone’s light reflecting properties. A properly cut pavilion will allow the maximum amount of light to reflect from the surface of the stone. An excessively deep or shallow diamond can cause light to escape out of the bottom and sides, reducing its sparkle.

Pavilion Main Facets

Diamond or kite shaped facets between the culet and the girdle.

Pear Cut

Exuding elegance, the pear shape diamond (also referred to as a drop cut or teardrop diamond) is cut to resemble a drop of water with a single point and rounded end. The result is a cross between a round and marquise cut.


A gemstone and an organic substance. Pearls have been coveted through the ages for their beauty as symbols of wealth and status. Pearl formation process begins when a foreign body enters a mollusk (usually an oyster or mussel) and is coated with nacre as a natural defense. The natural pearl market declined after 1900, and today 99% of pearls are cultured and are grown around the world in saltwater oysters and freshwater mussels. Read more


Gem quality olivine, of olive (yellowish green) colour. The highest quality peridot is found in Myanmar. Read more

Pigeons Blood

A term coined by the Burmese in the Bronze Age and used in the trade to describe what is considered to be the best colour ruby from the Mogok region in Burma (now Myanmar). The stone should be deep bluish-red with a velvety appearance.


A metal prized for its rarity, whiteness, high tensile strength and insusceptibility to corrosion. It first became widely used in jewellery in the late nineteenth century, when methods were found to make it more easily workable.  It features heavily in the delicate Edwardian jewellery of the first decades of the twentieth century.


The quality of the surface condition of a gemstone, as a result of the polishing process.

Princess Cut

A square stone with 90-degree corners, the princess shape originated in the United States in 1980. The most desirable princess diamonds are perfectly square in shape, with the more rectangular variations decreasing in value.